1. An object that is surrounded by a magnetic field and that has the property, either natural or induced, of attracting iron or steel.
2. An electromagnet.
3. A person, a place, an object, or a situation that exerts attraction.
[Middle English, from Old French magnete, from Latin magnes, magnet-, from Greek Magnes (lithos), Magnesian (stone), magnet, from Magnesia, Magnesia, an ancient city of Asia Minor.]
How Magnets are Made: How is a magnet made?
A magnet is a material that can exert a noticeable force on other materials without actually contacting them. This force is known as a magnetic force and may either attract or repel. While all known materials exert some sort of magnetic force, it is so small in most materials that it is not readily noticeable. With other materials, the magnetic force is much larger, and these are referred to as magnets. The Earth itself is a huge magnet.
Some magnets, known as permanent magnets, exert a force on objects without any outside influence. The iron ore magnetite, also known as lodestone, is a natural permanent magnet. Other permanent magnets can be made by subjecting certain materials to a magnetic force. When the force is removed, these materials retain their own magnetic properties. Although the magnetic properties may change over time or at elevated temperatures, these materials are generally considered to be permanently magnetized, hence the name.
Other magnets are known as electromagnets. They are made by surrounding certain materials with a coil of wire. When an electric current is passed through the coil, these materials exert a magnetic force. When the current is shut off, the magnetic force of these materials drops to nearly zero. Electromagnet materials retain little, if any, magnetic properties without a flow of electric current in the coil.
All magnets have two points where the magnetic force is greatest. These two points are known as the poles. For a rectangular or cylindrical bar magnet, these poles would be at opposite ends. One pole is called the north-seeking pole, or north pole, and the other pole is called the south-seeking, or south pole. This terminology reflects one of the earliest uses of magnetic materials such as lodestone. When suspended from a string, the north pole of these first crude compasses would always "seek" or point towards the north. This aided sailors in judging the direction to steer to reach distant lands and return home.
In our present technology, magnet applications include compasses, electric motors, microwave ovens, coin-operated vending machines, light meters for photography, automobile horns, televisions, loudspeakers, and tape recorders. A simple refrigerator note holder and a complex medical magnetic resonance imaging device both utilize magnets.
Naturally occurring magnetic lodestone was studied and used by the Greeks as early as 500 B.C. Other civilizations may have known of it earlier than that. The word magnet is derived from the Greek name magnetis lithos, the stone of Magnesia, referring to the region on the Aegean coast in present-day Turkey where these magnetic stones were found.
The first use of a lodestone as a compass is generally believed to have occurred in Europe in about A.D. 1100 to A.D. 1200. The term lodestone comes from the Anglo-Saxon meaning "leading stone," or literally, "the stone that leads." The Icelandic word is leider-stein, and was used in writings of that period in reference to the navigation of ships.
In 1600, English scientist William Gilbert confirmed earlier observations regarding magnetic poles and concluded that the Earth was a magnet. In 1820, the Dutch scientist Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism, and French physicist Andre Ampere further expanded upon this discovery in 1821.
In the early 1900s, scientists began studying magnetic materials other than those based on iron and steel. By the 1930s, researchers had produced the first powerful Alnico alloy permanent magnets. Even more powerful ceramic magnets using rare earth elements were successfully formulated in the 1970s with further advances in this area in the 1980s.
Today, magnetic materials can be made to meet many different performance requirements depending on the final application.
When making magnets, the raw materials are often more important than the manufacturing process. The materials used in permanent magnets (sometimes known as hard materials, reflecting the early use of alloy steels for these magnets) are different than the materials used in electromagnets (some-times known as soft materials, reflecting the use of soft, malleable iron in this application).
Permanent Magnet Materials
Permanent magnet lodestones contain magnetite, a hard, crystalline iron ferrite mineral that derives its magnetism from the effect the earth's magnetic field has on it. Various steel alloys can also be magnetized. The first big step in developing more effective permanent magnet materials came in the 1930s with the development of Alnico alloy magnets. These magnets take their name from the chemical symbols for the aluminum-nickel-cobalt elements used to make the alloy. Once magnetized, Alnico magnets have between 5 and 17 times the magnetic force of magnetite.
Ceramic permanent magnets are made from finely powdered barium ferrite or strontium ferrite formed under heat and pressure. Their magnetic strength is enhanced by aligning the powder particles with a strong magnetic field during forming. Ceramic magnets are comparable to Alnico magnets in terms of magnetic force and have the advantage of being able to be pressed into various shapes without significant machining.
Flexible permanent magnets are made from powdered barium ferrite or strontium ferrite mixed in a binding material like rubber or a flexible plastic like polyvinyl chloride.
In the 1970s, researchers developed permanent magnets made from powdered samarium cobalt fused under heat. These magnets take advantage of the fact that the arrangement of the groups of atoms, called magnetic domains, in the hexagonal crystals of this material tend to be magnetically aligned. Because of this natural alignment, samarium-cobalt magnets can be made to produce magnetic forces 50 times stronger than magnetite. Headphones for small, personal stereo systems use samarium-cobalt permanent magnets. Samarium-cobalt magnets also have the advantage of being able to operate in higher temperatures than other permanent magnets without losing their magnetic strength.
Similar permanent magnets were made in the 1980s using powdered neodymium iron boron which produces magnetic forces almost 75 times stronger than magnetite. These are the most powerful permanent magnets commercially available today.
Pure iron and iron alloys are most commonly used in electromagnets. Silicon iron and specially treated iron-cobalt alloys are used in low-frequency power transformers.
A special iron oxide, called a gamma iron oxide, is often used in the manufacture of magnetic tapes for sound and data recording. Other materials for this application include cobalt-modified iron oxides and chromium dioxide. The material is finely ground and coated on a thin polyester plastic film.
Other Magnetic Materials
Magnetic fluids can be made by encapsulating powdered barium ferrite particles in a single layer of molecules of a long-chain polymer plastic. The particles are then held in suspension in a liquid like water or oil. Because of the plastic encapsulation, the magnetic particles slide over each other with almost no friction. The particles are so small that normal thermal agitation in the liquid keeps the particles from settling. Magnetic fluids are used in several applications as sealants, lubricants, or vibration damping materials.
Just as the materials are different for different kinds of magnets, the manufacturing processes are also different. Many electromagnets are cast using standard metal casting techniques. Flexible permanent magnets are formed in a plastic extrusion process in which the materials are mixed, heated, and forced through a shaped opening under pressure.
Some magnets are formed using a modified powdered metallurgy process in which finely powdered metal is subjected to pressure, heat, and magnetic forces to form the final magnet. Here is a typical powdered metallurgy process used to produce powerful neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets with cross-sectional areas of about 3-10 square inches (20-65 sq cm):
Preparing the powdered metal
* The appropriate amounts of neodymium, iron, and boron are heated to melting in a vacuum. The vacuum prevents any chemical reaction between air and the melting materials that might contaminate the final metal alloy.
* Once the metal has cooled and solidified, it is broken up and crushed into small pieces. The small pieces are then ground into a fine powder in a ball mill.
* The powdered metal is placed in a mold, called a die, that is the same length and width (or diameter, for round magnets) as the finished magnet. A magnetic force is applied to the powdered material to line up the powder particles. While the magnetic force is being applied, the powder is pressed from the top and bottom with hydraulic or mechanical rams to compress it to within about 0.125 inches (0.32 cm) of its final intended thickness. Typical pressures are about 10,000 psi to 15,000 psi (70 MPa to 100 MPa). Some shapes are made by placing the powdered material in a flexible, air-tight, evacuated container and pressing it into shape with liquid or gas pressure. This is known as isostatic compaction.
* The compressed "slug" of powdered metal is removed from the die and placed in an oven. The process of heating compressed powdered metals to transform them into fused, solid metal pieces is called sintering. The process usually consists of three stages. In the first stage, the compressed material is heated at a low temperature to slowly drive off any moisture or other contaminants that may have become entrapped during the pressing process. In the second stage, the temperature is raised to about 70-90% of the melting point of the metal alloy and held there for a period of several hours or several days to allow the small particles to fuse together. Finally, the material is cooled down slowly in controlled, step-by-step temperature increments.
* The sintered material then undergoes a second controlled heating and cooling process known as annealing. This process removes any residual stresses within the material and strengthens it.
* The annealed material is very close to the finished shape and dimensions desired. This condition is known as "nearnet" shape. A final machining process removes any excess material and produces a smooth surface where needed. The material is then given a protective coating to seal the surfaces.
* Up to this point, the material is just a piece of compressed and fused metal. Even though it was subjected to a magnetic force during pressing, that force didn't magnetize the material, it simply lined up the loose powder particles. To turn it into a magnet, the piece is placed between the poles of a very powerful electromagnet and oriented in the desired direction of magnetization. The electromagnet is then energized for a period of time. The magnetic force aligns the groups of atoms, or magnetic domains, within the material to make the piece into a strong permanent magnet.
Each step of the manufacturing process is monitored and controlled. The sintering and annealing processes are especially critical to the final mechanical and magnetic properties of the magnet, and the variables of time and temperature must be closely controlled.
Barium and the barium compounds used to make barium ferrite permanent magnets are poisonous and are considered toxic materials. Companies making barium ferrite magnets must take special precautions in the storage, handling, and waste disposal of the barium products.
Electromagnets can usually be recycled by salvaging the component iron cores and copper wiring in the coil. Partial recycling of permanent magnets may be achieved by removing them from obsolete equipment and using them again in similar new equipment. This is not always possible, however, and a more comprehensive approach to recycling permanent magnets needs to be developed.
Researchers continue to search for even more powerful magnets than those available today. One of the applications of more powerful permanent magnets would be the development of small, high-torque electric motors for battery-powered industrial robots and laptop computer disk drives. More powerful electromagnets could be used for the levitation and propulsion of high-speed trains using pulsed magnetic fields. Such trains, sometimes called maglev trains, would be supported and guided by a central, magnetic "rail." They would move without ever contacting the rail, thus eliminating mechanical friction and noise. Pulsed magnetic fields could also be used to launch satellites into space without relying on expensive and heavy booster rockets.
More powerful magnets could also be used as research tools to develop other new materials and processes. Intense, pulsed magnet fields are currently being used in nuclear fusion research to contain the hot, reacting nuclear plasma that would otherwise melt any solid material vessel. Magnetic fields can also be used in materials research to study the behavior of semiconductors used in electronics to determine the effects of making micro-sized integrated circuits.
Where To Learn More
Brady, George S. and Henry R. Clauser. Materials Handbook, 12th Ed. McGraw-Hill, 1986.
Braithwaite, Nicholas and Graham Weaver, eds. Electronic Materials. Butterworths, 1990.
Campbell, Peter. Permanent Magnet Materials and Their Design. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Verschuur, Gerrit L. Hidden Attraction: The History and Mystery of Magnetism. Oxford University Press, 1993.
Boebinger, Greg, Al Passner, and Joze Bevk. "Building World-Record Magnets." Scientific American, June 1995, pp. 58-66.
Duplessis, John. "An Attractive Proposition." Machine Design, June 11, 1993, p. 46.
[Article by: Chris Cavette]
Sci-Tech Encyclopedia: Magnet
An object or device that produces a magnetic field. Magnets are essential for the generation of electric power and are used in motors, generators, labor-saving electromechanical devices, information storage, recording, and numerous specialized applications, for example, seals of refrigerator doors. The magnetic fields produced by magnets apply a force at a distance on other magnets, charged particles, electric currents, and magnetic materials. See also Generator; Magnetic recording; Motor.
Magnets may be classified as either permanent or excited. Permanent magnets are composed of so-called hard magnetic material, which retains an alignment of the magnetization in the presence of ambient fields. Excited magnets use controllable energizing currents to generate magnetic fields in either electromagnets or air-cored magnets. See also Electromagnet; Ferromagnetism; Superconductivity.
The essential characteristic of permanent-magnet materials is an inherent resistance to change in magnetization over a wide range of field strength. Resistance to change in magnetization in this type of material is due to two factors: (1) the material consists of particles smaller than the size of a domain, a circumstance which prevents the gradual change in magnetization which would otherwise take place through the movement of domain wall boundaries; and (2) the particles exhibit a marked magnetocrystalline anisotropy. During manufacture the particles are aligned in a magnetic field before being sintered or bonded in a soft metal or polyester resin. Compounds of neodymium, iron, and boron are used. See also Iron alloys.
Electromagnets rely on magnetically soft or permeable materials which are well annealed and homogeneous so as to allow easy motion of domain wall boundaries. Ideally the coercive force should be zero, permeability should be high, and the flux density saturation level should be high. Coincidentally the hysteresis energy loss represented by the area of the hysteresis curve is small. This property and high electrical resistance (for the reduction of eddy currents) are required where the magnetic field is to vary rapidly. This is accomplished by laminating the core and using iron alloyed with a few percent silicon that increases the resistivity.
Electromagnets usually have an energizing winding made of copper and a permeable iron core. Applications include relays, motors, generators, magnetic clutches, switches, scanning magnets for electron beams (for example, in television receivers), lifting magnets for handling scrap, and magnetic recording heads. See also Cathode-ray tube; Clutch; Electric switch; Relay.
Special iron-cored electromagnets designed with highly homogeneous fields are used for special analytical applications in, for example, electron or nuclear magnetic resonance, or as bending magnets for particle accelerators. See also Magnetic resonance; Particle accelerator.
Air-cored electromagnets are usually employed above the saturation flux density of iron (about 2 T); at lower fields, iron-cored magnets require much less power because the excitation currents needed then are required only to generate a small field to magnetize the iron. The air-cored magnets are usually in the form of a solenoid with an axial hole allowing access to the high field in the center. The conductor, usually copper or a copper alloy, must be cooled to dissipate the heat generated by resistive losses. In addition, the conductor and supporting structure must be sufficiently strong to support the forces generated in the magnet. See also Solenoid (electricity).
In pulsed magnets, higher fields can be generated by limiting the excitation to short pulses (usually furnished by the energy stored in a capacitor bank) and cooling the magnet between pulses. The highest fields are generally achieved in small volumes. A field of 75 T has been generated for 120 microseconds.
Large-volume or high-field magnets are often fabricated with superconducting wire in order to avoid the large resistive power losses of normal conductors. The two commercially available superconducting wire materials are (1) alloys of niobium-titanium, a ductile material which is used for generating fields up to about 9 T; and (2) a brittle alloy of niobium and tin (Nb3Sn) for fields above 9 T. Practical superconducting wires use complex structures of fine filaments of superconductor that are twisted together and embedded in a copper matrix. The conductors are supported against the electromagnetic forces and cooled by liquid helium at 4.2 K (-452?F). A surrounding thermal insulating enclosure such as a dewar minimizes the heat flow from the surroundings.
Superconducting magnets operating over 20 T have been made with niobium-titanium outer sections and niobium-tin inner sections. Niobium-titanium is used in whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging magnets for medical diagnostics. Other applications of superconducting magnets include their use in nuclear magnetic resonance for chemical analysis, particle accelerators, containment of plasma in fusion reactors, magnetic separation, and magnetic levitation. See also Magnetic levitation; Magnetic separation methods; Medical imaging; Nuclear fusion; Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); Superconducting devices.
The highest continuous fields are generated by hybrid magnets. A large-volume (lower-field) superconducting magnet that has no resistive power losses surrounds a water-cooled inner magnet that operates at the highest field. The fields of the two magnets add. Over 35 T has been generated continuously.
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: magnet
Any material capable of attracting iron and producing a magnetic field outside itself. By the end of the 19th century, all known elements and many compounds had been tested for magnetism, and all were found to have some magnetic property. However, only three elements ? iron, nickel, and cobalt ? exhibit ferromagnetism. See also compass, electromagnet.
For more information on magnet, visit Britannica.com.
Science Dictionary: magnet
An object that attracts iron and some other materials. Magnets are said to generate a magnetic field around themselves. Every magnet has two poles, called the north and south poles. Magnetic poles exert forces on each other in such a way that like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other. A compass is a small magnet that is affected by the magnetic field of the Earth in such a way that it points to a magnetic pole of the Earth. (See magnetic field and magnetism.)
Veterinary Dictionary: magnet
An object having polarity and capable of attracting iron.
* oral dose m. ? see reticular magnet.
* reticular m. ? a magnet placed in the reticulum to attract and isolate sharp metal and help to prevent traumatic reticuloperitonitis in ruminants.
Electronics Dictionary: magnet
Body that can be used to attract or repel magnetic materials.
Devil's Dictionary: magnet
A cynical view of the world by Ambrose Bierce
Something acted upon by magnetism.
Word Tutor: magnet
IN BRIEF: A piece of some material such as the mineral iron oxide that is able to attract iron.
Memory is a magnet. It will pull to it and hold only material nature has designed it to attract. ? Jassamyn West, American novelist, Quaker, best known for her novel, The Friendly.
Iron filings in a magnetic field generated by a bar magnet
Iron filings in a magnetic field generated by a bar magnet
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. A "hard" or "permanent" magnet is one which stays magnetized for a long time, such as magnets often used in refrigerator doors. Permanent magnets occur naturally in some rocks, particularly lodestone, but are now more commonly manufactured. A "soft" or "impermanent" magnet is one which loses its memory of previous magnetizations. "Soft" magnetic materials are often used in electromagnets to enhance (often hundreds or thousands of times) the magnetic field of a wire that carries an electrical current and is wrapped around the magnet; the field of the "soft" magnet increases with the current.
Two measures of a material's magnetic properties are its magnetic moment and its magnetization. A material without a permanent magnetic moment can, in the presence of magnetic fields, be attracted (paramagnetic), or repelled (diamagnetic). Liquid oxygen is paramagnetic; graphite is diamagnetic. Paramagnets tend to intensify the magnetic field in their vicinity, whereas diamagnets tend to weaken it. "Soft" magnets, which are strongly attracted to magnetic fields, can be thought of as strongly paramagnetic; superconductors, which are strongly repelled by magnetic fields, can be thought of as strongly diamagnetic.
The magnetic field, magnetic moment, and magnetization are vectors, meaning they have direction and magnitude. The magnetic moment and magnetization are properties only of the magnet, while the magnetic field it produces depends on the position relative to the magnet. The magnetic moment points from its south pole to its north pole. Also, its north pole points towards the Earth's geographic north pole, which is a magnetic south pole. A compass needle is approximately a bar magnet.
A magnetic field can be measured using a good magnetic compass (this is a small permanent magnet). The direction of the field at a point in space is the direction in which the compass needle points when it passes through that point and is in equilibrium. The magnitude (or strength, usually denoted by the symbol B) of a magnetic field can also be measured using a compass, if the field is, like the Earth's, nearly uniform over the volume occupied by the needle. The needle is rotated about its center, and this makes it oscillate about its equilibrium position. The period t of oscillation is measured. For small oscillation angles, the frequency of the oscillation, 1/t, is proportional to the square root of B. This is a result from the theory of rotational motion and the theory of the torque on a magnet, and can be tested by creating an electromagnet, which makes a magnetic field proportional to the electric current that it carries. The common unit of magnetic field is the tesla, denoted "T", equal to one N/(A?m) (Force/(Current?Distance)), or Wb/m? (magnetic flux per area), and about 20,000 times the Earth's magnetic field. Technically, B should be called the magnetic induction field, because changing B induces an electric field, by Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction.
The magnetic moment ? of a magnet is the magnetic strength of the field at a distance r from the magnet. At large distances, the magnetic field B is proportional to ? and inversely proportional to r?. So, ? can be obtained by measuring B at a distance r. The common unit for magnetic moment is A?m?. A wire in the shape of a circle with area A and carrying current I has a magnetic moment equal to IA.
Magnetization of an object is its magnetic moment per unit volume. It is usually denoted M and has the units A/m. A good bar magnet may have a magnetic moment of 0.1 A?m? and a volume of 1 cm?, or 0.000001 m?, and therefore a magnetization of 100,000 A/m. Iron can have a magnetization of around a million A/m.
The magnetic moment of atoms in a ferromagnetic material cause them to behave something like tiny permanent magnets. They stick together and align themselves into small regions of more or less uniform alignment called magnetic domains or Weiss domains. Magnetic domains can be observed with Magnetic force microscope to reveal magnetic domain boundaries that resemble white lines in the sketch.There are many scientific experiments that can physically show magnetic fields.
Effect of a magnet on the domains.
Effect of a magnet on the domains.
When a domain contains too many molecules, it becomes unstable and divides into two domains aligned in opposite directions so that they stick together more stably as shown at the right.
When exposed to a magnetic field, the domain boundaries move so that the domains aligned with the magnetic field grow and dominate the structure as shown at the left. When the magnetizing field is removed, the domains may not return to a unmagnetized state. This results in the ferromagnetic material being magnetized, forming a permanent magnet.
When magnetized strongly enough that the prevailing domain overruns all others to result in only one single domain, the material is magnetically saturated. When a magnetized ferromagnetic material is heated to the Curie point temperature, the molecules are agitated to the point that the magnetic domains lose the organization and the magnetic properties they cause cease. When the material is cooled, this domain alignment structure spontaneously returns as the material develops its crystalline structure.
Physical origin of magnetism
Magnetism, ultimately, is due to the motion of electric charge. For a macroscopic object, like a wire loop, an electric current flowing through it has a magnetic moment. Far from the loop there is a magnetic field proportional in strength to its magnetic moment.
For a microscopic object, the physical picture is more complex. An electron within an atom can have orbital angular momentum and a magnetic moment proportional to that orbital angular momentum; the electron also has intrinsic angular momentum, or spin, and a magnetic moment proportional to that spin angular momentum. The orbital and spin angular momentum of an electron are comparable in magnitude, as are their magnetic moments. Far from the electron there is a magnetic field proportional in strength to its magnetic moment.
In addition, within the atomic nucleus are both neutrons and protons, and these too have orbital and spin angular momentum, and associated magnetic moments. However, the nuclear magnetic moment typically is much smaller than the electron magnetic moment, because although the magnetic moment is proportional to its angular momentum (comparable to that of the electron) it is also inversely proportional to its mass. Nevertheless, it is the nucleus's relatively small nuclear magnetic moment that is responsible for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which is the basis for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Although most atoms and molecules have a net magnetic moment at temperatures well below room temperature, at room temperature they typically have no net magnetic moment. However, they can often be magnetized. If the orbital magnetic properties dominate, the response typically will be diamagnetic; if the intrinsic magnetic properties dominate, the response typically will be paramagnetic.
Solids are collections of atoms and molecules. At room temperature most solids are either diamagnetic or paramagnetic.
Although for many purposes it is convenient to think of a magnet as having magnetic poles, it must be remembered that no isolated magnetic pole has ever been observed. As indicated above, the proper description is ultimately one due to electrical currents. For a magnet, these currents should be thought of as circulating about its atoms, and flowing without any electrical resistance. This physical picture is due to Andr?-Marie Amp?re, and these atomic currents are known as Amperian currents. For